Davies, G. F. (2009), Reconciling the geophysical and geochemical mantles: Plume flows, heterogeneities, and disequilibrium, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10, Q10008


Geophysical evidence and numerical models of mantle stirring imply the source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) comprises most of the mantle, excepting only the D″ region and the “superpile” anomalies deep under Africa and the Pacific. Geophysical evidence is also strong that the mantle is heated substantially from within. Geochemical inferences of a strongly depleted MORB source are inconsistent with this picture because they would require the MORB source to be heated mainly from below and because they cannot accommodate all of the Earth's incompatible elements.